Analytic Toolkit for Knowledge Forum

(July 16, 2002 -- v4.0 )

(See the Reference section for detailed information on the computation of measures.)

Introduction

The Analytic Toolkit provides summary statistics on activity in a Knowledge Forum database. It shows how many notes are in the database, how connected they are, how many notes an author has created, which views an author is working in, what percentage of the notes have been read, whether build-ons, keywords, references and other knowledge building features are being used, who has read and written new notes during a particular time period, and social interactions. It is intended to be used by database managers, researchers, and participants in the database.

Mechanics

The Analytic Toolkit is Web-based, and accessed with a browser through a URL. The Knowledge Forum database to be analysed can be located anywhere, provided there is Internet access to it. The URL for the Toolkit can be obtained from Learning in Motion or OISE/UT.

The Toolkit uses only simple HTML, for the most part. It uses some JavaScript, if available, but will work without it. Most Internet browsers are therefore supported. It is written as a set of CGIs in Perl.

The Toolkit will work on databases running on Knowledge Forum version 2, 3, or 4.

The Sign-On Page

The sign-on page for the Analytic Toolkit asks for a username and password, which are the same ones used for Knowledge Forum itself.

The sign-on page may also ask for the Database name and Port number. This is the full name of the database to be analysed, and the port number it is running on. If it is running on a Mac or Windows machine, the port number is 27319. If it is running on a Linux machine, the port number is the one specified in the Knowledge Forum Remote Servers file.

There is an option at the bottom of the sign-on page called "Skip Update". This is not normally selected. Its use is described below under "Updating of Toolkit Information".

Reports

After you sign on, you are given a choice of reports. Each report calculates and presents a particular set of measures, as follows (detailed descriptions are given in the Reference section):

1) Database Overview gives summary statistics and group averages for a particular group's contributions to the database. It shows how many notes they've contributed, which views they've contributed to in the past month and past week, how much of the database authors have read, and how many of their notes are linked to other notes. It is intended to provide evidence on the extent of knowledge-building activity in the database, and also on where the recent activity has been.

The next three reports give statistics for each author in the selected group. Means, medians, and standard deviations for the group are also given:

2) Basic Knowledge Building Measures are meant to be useful for assessing an author's contributions to the database from a knowledge building perspective. Is the author working with other authors, or in isolation? To what extent is the author aware of other work in the database? Does an author's work span a variety of different views and problems, or is it concentrated in one area? The measures are: number of notes contributed, percentage of notes that are linked to other notes, percentage of notes that have been keyworded, number of views worked in, number of problems worked on, percentage of notes in the database that the author has read, and the number of times the author has revised a note.

3) Use of Features. These measures are intended to be useful in assessing whether authors are using the knowledge-building features that are available in Knowledge Forum. When new features of Knowledge Forum are introduced to a group, which authors have caught on to them? Is the use of these features correlated with advances in knowledge? The measures are: number of author's notes that are part of a build-on tree, number of keywords used, number of references in the author's notes, number of rise-above-it notes, number of views created by the author, and number of scaffold supports used. For KF2 databases, the number of collections and add tos are also shown. For KF3 and KF4 databases, the number of annotations that a author has made is shown.

4) Use of scaffold supports. This report gives a detailed breakdown of which scaffolds and supports each author has used. Are scaffolds being used well? Are new scaffolds being used?

5) Single Author Report presents information on only one author, but it presents all of the measures in reports 2 to 4. It also presents as additional information the names of the notes that the author has contributed to each view, and the problems and keywords they have used.

The next four reports analyse reading and writing activity in the database during particular time periods:

6) Activity (Note Creation/Note Reading). Who has been active in the database during a given time period? The report shows reading and writing activity in the database for a specified time period. Which views are authors finding useful, and adding to? Which group interventions or changes to the database were effective, and for which authors?

7) Activity (Note Creation--Details). What types of notes has each author contributed to the database during a given time period? The report shows details of what each author has been doing--how many build-ons vs regular notes the author has contributed, group notes vs individual notes, and so on.

8) Activity Log for Single Author. A detailed log of every time the author read or wrote a note in KF, during a selected time period. Patterns of use of individuals can be traced, and related, for example, to knowledge-building episodes seen in the notes.

9) Activity Log for Multiple Authors Same information as for the single author, but for everyone in a group.

The next five reports all look at social interactions in the database. Who is working with whom? How is knowledge building affected by particular interactions? If there is more than one group working in the database, what are the interactions between groups? The first four reports show specific types of interactions, while the last one combines all of the KF interactions that could be considered as "linking".

10) Who's read whose notes?

11) Who's coauthored notes with whom?

12) Who's built on whom?

13) Who's referenced whom?

14) Who's linked to whom? (where linking includes building on, referencing, and use of rise-above-it notes, (and, for KF2 only, add tos and collections).)

The next two reports give information in terms of notes, rather than authors:

15) Who Has Read Each Note. Shows which authors have read each note in the database.

16) Note History. Shows the entire history of who has saved and read a particular note.

And finally:

17) Code Book. If coded names are requested for the Toolkit reports, this report shows which code goes with which author. (See Coded reports, below.)

Parameters

After you select a report and "Submit" it, the Toolkit requires parameters to be specified. There are three parameters for most of the reports:

Look at Group Each report is for the authors in one or more groups, corresponding the groups already created in the KF client (under "Edit users..." (KF2) or "Users and Groups" (KF3 and KF4)).

Look at notes in all views, or only in the following selected views. The report can be restricted to part of the database by choosing particular views--only notes that are currently in those views will be reported on. All views in the database are listed as choices, including restricted views. A table that shows the number of notes from each group in each view is given to aid in selecting views. (A note is counted as being from a given group if it has at least one author from that group.)

Look at all notes or only notes created within a particular time period: The report can be restricted to a particular time period, such as the past week or month, by selecting beginning and end dates. Only notes that were created between these dates (inclusive) will be reported.

Other parameters that are used for some reports are:

Look at Author, in the reports for single authors, allows you to choose which author to report on. All authors in KF are listed, even those who have been set to "inactive" in the KF client.

How extensive should the report be?, in the reports on author activity, affects the amount of information given for each read and save event. The number of events reported is not affected by these choices.

Show z-scores: Reports that give score-like measures for each author (reports 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) will also display the z-score equivalent of each score if this box is selected.

Saving Reports

If a printed copy of a report is needed, the Web page can be printed directly from the browser. Reports 1-9 and 15-17 will fit well on standard paper. At present, there is no good way to print reports 10-14, however, as the large matrices do not fit on a page.

If an electronic copy of a report is needed, the browser's "Save" options will not preserve the table alignments with some browsers. The Toolkit therefore makes a text version of each report available, which uses tabs to align the table entries. Instructions for downloading the text version are presented at the bottom of the Web version of each report. Once saved, the text version can be opened in a text processor or a spreadsheet, and the tables will be tab-aligned. Again, reports 10-14 are a problem: The saved file will be suitable for reading into a spreadsheet, but it will be difficult to use it as a text file.

Some reports can also be saved as KF notes, back into the database that you are working in. Instructions are at the bottom of the report.

Coded Reports

Author names can be replaced with code names in all of the Toolkit reports. This can be done in two ways. The first is for public presentations or written reports where confidentiality is required, and the second is for coded author access.

First, for authors who are registered as editors or managers in Knowledge Forum 3 or 4 (or as teachers in Knowledge Forum 2), there is a choice box at the bottom of the report selection page that lets you substitute code names for the normal author names. If you select this option, all of the reports produced will show coded names in place of actual names. This is useful for public presentations or for written reports, where confidentiality is required.

Second, if authors who are registered as writers in Knowledge Forum 3 or 4 (or students in Knowledge Forum 2) are given access to the ATK, an option is available that will let them see all of the results with coded names in place of real names. This lets writers (or students) look at Toolkit reports which show scores for everyone in the database without knowing who's who. These authors can get their own code name by using the Code Book, which, with this option, will show only the code for the individual who is currently signed on.

Codes are not Secure:

Be aware that the coding of names in ATK does not prevent a author from discovering who's who, it only makes it a bit more difficult. For example, with a particular view selected, the Basic Knowledge Building Measures report will give results showing how many notes each coded author has written in that view. A curious user could easily count the number of notes each author has produced in that view by looking directly at Knowledge Forum, and then match these numbers with the ATK results to break the code.

For KF2 databases, use of the ATK, even with coded names, gives students access to the notes in restricted views. Restricted views should therefore be not be used in KF2 databases if students are given access to the ATK.

Updating of Toolkit Information

You do not need to worry about controlling the updating of Toolkit information. If you do not do anything special, updating will be handled automatically. However, in some cases you can save time by controlling it.

Most of the time taken by the Analytic Toolkit to prepare a report is spent in reading the necessary data from the Knowledge Forum server. A typical report on a large database can take two or three minutes to get the data from the server, but then only two or three seconds to compute the measures for the report. In order to speed things up, once information has been read from the KF server, the Toolkit saves it for future use. Since all of the Toolkit reports use the same data, after the first report on a database has been made, subsequent reports are computed mostly or entirely from the saved data, and are much faster.

Since the Toolkit works with saved data whenever possible, there is generally no updating of its information during a given session. If you need to update the data, however, you can do so by going back to the sign-on screen and signing on to the database again. This starts a new session, which forces the Toolkit to go to the KF server and update its information--unless the "Skip update" box is checked.

For some purposes, it may be unnecessary to update the data even at the beginning of a session--e.g., for demos, or for databases that have not changed since the last time you signed on. In this case, you can choose "Skip update" at the bottom of the sign-on page, and the Toolkit will not bother to read data from the KF server, but instead use the data it already has from the most recent session where updating was done.

Conclusion

The Analytic Toolkit is not the only way to do analyses on a Knowledge Forum database. KF itself provides overview tools, such as views and searches, which complement the reports that are available in the Toolkit. There is also a second Web-based analysis tool called the Vocabulary Analyser that provides information on the contents of notes.

There are many measures and variations of measures that could have been included in the present Toolkit but weren't. We welcome suggestions for additional measures that would improve the reports. Our long term plan is to incoporate the functionality of the Analytic Toolkit into Knowledge Forum itself, so that users can get overview information and statistics on the database while they are working in Knowledge Forum.

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Reference

Calculation of the Analytic Toolkit Measures

This section is intended to address the detailed questions that arise when you start using the Toolkit. It begins with some general comments, and then describes the calculation of the specific scores that appear in each report.

General Comments

Authorship vs. Contribution

In Knowledge Forum, there is a distinction between an author of a note and a contributor to a note. A user is an author if they are on the author list, which means that they are allowed to contribute modifications to the note. A user is a contributor if they have actually made and saved modifications to it (including the creator of the note).

Authorship and contribution on a particular note may differ. If a note has multiple authors, it is possible that not all of them have actually contributed anything to it. Also, it sometimes happens that one user signs on to Knowledge Forum and contributes a note on behalf of someone else, and then changes the author list so that the sole author of the note is the other person; or that a user makes a note while signed on under someone else's name, and later corrects the authorship. In such cases, the author of a note and its contributor are different.

For Knowledge Forum 2 databases, the Analytic Toolkit, until the February, 2001 update, reported by contributor throughout--it showed the number of notes a user had contributed to, how many of those notes have keywords, and so forth. This worked well for databases where there were notes with multiple authors, not all of whom had contributed. However, it did not work well for databases where users had modified author lists so that they reflected the true authorship of a note. Therefore KF2 databases now report by author rather than contributor, although there is a checkbox at the bottom of the report selection screen that still allows reporting by contributor. Activity reports are an exception--they are still reported by contributor regardless of the checkbox setting. This affects the reporting of note saves, where all of the notes that a user has saved (contributed to) are counted, even if the user is not an author on the note.

For Knowledge Forum 3 and 4 databases, the Analytic Toolkit reports by author throughout. Report by contributor is not implemented. Reports show the number of notes the user is an author on (whether or not the user has contributed to them), how many of those notes have keywords, etc., etc. Activity reports are also by author, in that only saves of notes that a user is an author on are reported. This means that saving someone else's note after you have annotated it is not counted in the activity reports, because you are not an author on that note. But annotating your own note is counted, not because the annotation is counted (see next item), but because after the annotation has been saved, the note itself also has to be saved, and you are an author on that note.

Annotations

Annotations are not reported on at all in KF3 and KF4 except in the explicit measure "number of annotations". All other measures are for regular notes only, including the activity reports, which count reads and saves of regular notes only, not annotations.

(The note history of an annotation, however, can be obtained, by entering its note number into a Note History report.)

Deleted and Cleared Notes

Notes that have been deleted or removed from all views in Knowledge Forum are genearally not included in ATK reports. (However, notes that are inside a rise-above-it note are considered to be in the view that the rise-above-it note is in.)

For KF2 databases, however, notes that have been removed from all views are listed in the four activity reports (reports 6-9) if the parameter "All Views" is selected on the parameters page, instead of selecting particular views. This is so that all the activity that a user has engaged in will be reported.

For KF3 and KF4 databases, this is no longer true, because experience has shown that these notes often have little content. Deleted notes, notes that have been cleared from all views, and notes that were started but never saved (unactivated notes) are not reported on anywhere for KF3 and KF4 databases.

Deleted Users

Users that have been deleted or set to "inactive" in the KF client are not included in any of the Toolkit reports.

Deleted Views

Views that have been deleted in the KF client are not included in any of the Toolkit reports.

Z-scores

In reports that show z-scores, the z-score for a given user is computed as the number of standard deviations of the user's score above (+) or below (-) the mean for the users being reported. For this computation, the mean and standard deviation of the scores for the users appearing in the report are used, except in the case of the Single Author Report, where the z-scores are based on the mean and standard deviation of the group to which the author belongs in Knowledge Forum.

Interpretation of the Date Parameter

There is a subtle issue with regard to the meaning of dates on the parameters page. The choice of dates determines which notes will be reported on, not what the database looked like at the chosen time. For example, if you choose the dates January 1 to January 31 and a particular view, the Toolkit will report on how many notes created in January are in that view today, rather than how many notes created in January were in that view in January. Knowledge Forum does not keep a history of changes to a note--changes to text, keywords, references, movement between views, authorship, etc. It records when a modification occurs, but not what the modification was. Therefore the ATK can only give information about the current state of a note--what keywords or references it currently has, what view it is currently in, who the current authors are, etc. The date feature lets you look at a selected part of the database--the notes created during a particular time period--but it shows what those notes look like now, not what they looked like at the selected time.

Time Zones

The handling of time zones depends on how you sign on to a database. If a general purpose sign-on page is used (called atk2.html, atk3.html, or atk4.html), then all dates and times refer to the timezone of the URL you have signed on to, where the ATK is running (California, Toronto, or the Netherlands). A note that was created in Toronto at 11 am will show the correct creation time if you are signed on to the ATK in Toronto, at kftools.oise.utoronto.ca, but it will show a creation time of 8 am if you are signed on to the ATK in California, at kf.motion.com.

If you are using a specific sign-on page for the database you are analysing, then a parameter should have been set on that page to automatically adjust for the difference between the timezone where the database was created and the timezone where the ATK is running, and all dates and times should refer to local time for the database.

The Toolkit assumes that daylight time is in effect in the summer (Northern Hemisphere), and that the shift occurs on the first Sunday of April and the last Sunday of October. For databases created in locations where this is not true, the times will be off by an hour. If a note is saved at 11 am in July in a location that does not observe daylight time in July, it will be reported as having been saved at noon. If a note is saved at 11 am in December in a location that observes daylight time in December, it will be reported as having been saved at 10.

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Scores for each Report

Database Overview

Database Parameters shows counts of authors, views, and notes for the part of the database selected for analysis:

1) The number of authors in the selected group.

2) The number of views selected. If "All views" was selected, the number of views in the database (including restricted views).

3) The number of notes in the selected views. This is based on the same criteria as column 2 of the following table (Database Activity by View), namely, all notes currently in any of the selected views, regardless of which group the author is in, or what the creation date is, and including notes inside rise-above-it notes. (This number may be smaller than the sum of the entries in column 2, however, because the same note can appear in more than one view.)

4) Database Activity by View gives note counts for each view:

Column 1: View name. The list includes only the selected views.

Column 2: Total notes in view. The count includes all the notes currently in the view, from all groups, and with any creation date. It includes all notes visible in the view, and also all notes inside rise-above-it notes that are in the view, since these notes were usually made in the view and then put into the rise-above-it note, and so are considered to be part of the view. Notes that were made in a view but have since been removed from it entirely, however, are not included.

Column 3: Notes for this group in selected time period. This count includes just the notes counted in column 2 that have at least one author from the selected group as an author, and that have a creation date within the selected time period. (If the selected time period is since the beginning of the database, then this column should be the same as the column for this group on the parameter page.)

Column 4: Notes for this group in the past month. This count includes the notes counted in column 3 whose creation date is within the past month.

Column 5: Notes for this group in the past week. This count includes the notes counted in column 3 whose creation date is within the past week.

5) Number of notes contributed by this group. Notes in the selected views that have at least one author from this group and fall within the time period selected. (Same criteria as column 3 of Database Activity by View.)

6) Number of notes contributed per author. The number of notes authored by each author, averaged (mean) over all authors in the group. It could be calculated as the number of notes divided by the number of authors (measure (5) divided by measure (1)), except that notes can have multiple authors, so it may be slightly greater than that. It is the average of the values in column 2 of the report "Basic Knowledge Building Measures".

7) Percentage of notes that have been read per author. The number of notes in the selected views that each author has opened (at least once), divided by the total number of notes in the selected views (measure (3)), x 100, averaged (mean) over all authors in the selected group. Since there is no guarantee that a note that has been opened has actually been read, this is a generous estimate, but it is the only indication we have of which notes an authorr has looked at. An author's own notes are counted. (This measure is the average of the values in column 7 of the report "Basic Knowledge Building Measures".)

8) Percentage of notes that are linked. This is the percentage of notes authored by each user that the author has "linked" to at least one other note in the database, averaged (mean) over all authors in the selected group. A note is considered to be linked to some other note if it is a build-on, it references another note, it contains a collection or an add to (KF2 only), or it is a rise-above-it note. (This measure is the average of the values in column 3 of the report "Basic Knowledge Building Measures".)

9) Percentage of notes with keywords. This is the percentage of notes authored by each user that the author has added at least one keyword to, averaged (mean) over all authors in the selected group. (It is the average of values in column 4 of the report "Basic Knowledge Building Measures".)

10) Size of build-on trees containing notes from this group. (Available for KF2 databases only.) A tabulation of all the build-on trees in the views selected--provided the tree has at least one note authored by someone in the selected group during the selected time period. The size category that a tree is assigned to depends only on the number of notes in the whole tree, not on the number of notes from the selected group, nor on whether the tree is broad or deep. The size categories are arbitrary, but can be used to track the growth of the database.

Basic Knowledge Building Measures

1) User name. All authors in the selected group(s) are listed.

2) # notes created. For KF3 and KF4 databases, the number of notes created during the selected time period and now appearing in one or more of the selected views, that the user is an author on. For KF2 database, the same, or, if the report is "by contributor" (see general comments below), the number of notes created during the selected time period and now appearing in one or more of the selected views, that the user has made a contribution to during the selected time period. If a note has multiple authors (or contributors), it is counted for each user who is an author on it (or has contributed to it). (But if the same note appears in multiple views, it is counted as only one note.)

3) % of notes linked. The percentage of the notes counted in column 2 that have been linked to at least one other note in the database, and hence are not isolated. A note has been linked to another note if it is a build-on, if it references another note, if it contains a collection or an add to (KF2 only), or if it is a rise-above-it note. (A note is counted as linked even if the note it links to is not within the selected views, dates, and group.)

4) % of notes with KWs. The percentage of notes authored by the user (i.e., counted in column 2) that have at least one keyword on them.

5) # views worked in. The number before the slash is the number of different views that the user has authored a note in, i.e., the number of different views, from among the views selected, that contain at least one of the notes counted in column 2. The number after the slash is the number of views selected, which is the maximum possible, since other views are not being considered.

6) # problems worked on. The number of different problem statements contained on notes authored by the user (i.e., counted in column 2).

7) % of notes read. The percentage of notes in the selected section of the database that the user has opened. (This may overestimate the number of notes the user has actually read.) It is computed as the number of different notes the user has opened, divided by the total number of different notes within the views and dates selected, but authored by anyone, whether in the group selected or not, x 100. That is, the selection of views and dates is used to pare down the database to just those notes of interest, but all the notes in that section of the database, regardless of author, are considered as being available to be read.

8) # revisions. The number of times a user has saved a note more than once. Only notes that were created during the time period and are in the views selected are counted. Also if the database is being reported "by author" (KF3 and KF4 databases, and KF2 databases unless the "by contributor" box is checked), only notes that the user is an author on are counted. Knowledge Forum records a note as being saved only if the note has been modified and "contributed", so opening and closing a note without modifying it doesn't count as a revision, but modifying the title or keywords do count, as well as modifying the text. (Note that may be a measure of "caution" as much as "revisiting": a cautious user may save the same note over and over in case there's a crash, while a less cautious one may just save it once at the end of the session.)

Use of Features

1) User name. All users in the selected group are listed.

2) # of notes in build-ons. The number before the slash is the number of notes that the user has contributed to that are part of a build-on tree. The number after the slash is the total number of notes that the user has contributed to (i.e., the number in column 2 of Basic Knowledge Building Measures).

3) # of keywords in notes. The total number of keywords on all notes that the user has contributed to (within the selected views and dates). The same keyword is counted multiple times if it is used on multiple notes, but not for multiple uses in the same note.

4) # of references in notes. The total number of references used in notes contributed to by the user (within the selected views and dates). The same reference is counted multiple times if it is used in multiple notes. (The referenced note does not have to be within the dates, views, or group selected.)

5) # of collections in notes. The total number of collections contained in notes contributed to by the user (within the selected views and dates).

6) # of rise-above-it notes. The total number of rise-above-it notes contributed to by the user (within the selected views and dates).

7) # of add tos in notes. The total number of add tos contained in notes contributed to by the user (within the selected views and dates).

8) # of views created. The number of views, among those selected, that the user is an author of. (All views are currently counted, regardless of their creation date, because the old server did not record this information. This will be fixed asap.)

Use of Scaffold Supports

This report counts all uses of scaffold supports during the selected time period, in notes that were created within the selected time period and now appear in one or more of the selected views.

1) User. Each user in the selected group is listed, whether or not they have used any scaffold supports.

2) Scaffold. The name of a scaffold that has been used by this user, or "(no scaffolds used)" if the user has not used any scaffolds.

3) Support. All the supports defined for this scaffold, whether or not they have been used.

4) # of uses. This column is blank if the user has not used any scaffold supports. If there are some uses, the first line "(total = x)" gives the number of support uses summed over all scaffolds. The second line "(x uses)" gives the number of times supports from this scaffold have been used, and the subsequent lines give the number of times each particular support has been used.

5) pct. This column is blank if the user has not used any scaffold supports. If there are some uses, it gives the number of uses of this support as a percentage of the total number of uses of all supports for this scaffold. (The column adds to 100% for each scaffold.)

Single User Report

The first part of this report gives all of the measures from the three reports "Basic Knowledge Building Measures", "Use of Features", and "Use of Scaffold Supports", for the selected user. A listing of the particular notes contributed to by this user is given under the heading "Notes for each view:". Notes are listed view by view, for each view that the user has contributed to. The number of notes listed will match "# notes created" at the beginning of the report, except that notes that appear in more than one view will be repeated here. The view name is given after the heading "Notes in View:", and under the heading are the titles of each note in that view. The second column (problem) gives the problem statement on the note, if any; the third column (keywords) gives the list of keywords on the note, if any. Keywords are separated by a slash.

Activity (Note Creation/Note Reading)

This report gives a count of the number of times each user in the group has read (i.e., opened) or saved notes during the selected time period. Unlike for the reports above, the note was not necessarily created during the selected time period, but it does have to appear, currently, in one or more of the selected views (except for KF2 databases, if the "All Views" parameter is selected, notes that have been cleared from all views are also reported). For saves, only notes that the user is an author on are counted (except for KF2 databases when "Report by Contribution" is selected.)

1) User name. All users in the selected group(s) are listed.

2) Total # Saves. The number of times notes have been saved. This could be the same note saved over and over, or different notes. A note has to be modified before it is counted by KF as a save, so notes that are opened and closed without modification are not counted.

3) Diff Notes. The number of different notes that have been saved at least once during the time period. (This cannot be larger than Total Saves.)

4) New Notes. The number of different notes that have been saved for the first time during this time period--i.e., the number of notes that have been created by this author during the time period, or, for notes with multiple authors that were created by someone else, contributed to by this author for the first time. (This cannot be larger than Diff Notes.)

The number of revisions made during the time period is 2) - 4), the total number of saves minus the number of new saves, since everything other than a new save is a revision. (For the number of different notes revised, see next report.)

5) Total # Reads. The number of times notes have been opened. (There is no guarantee that a note that has been opened has been read--although there is a guarantee that a note that hasn't been opened hasn't been read. So this is really an upper limit on the number of reads.) This could be the same note being opened over and over, or different notes.

6) Diff Notes. The number of different notes that have been opened at least once during the time period. (This cannot be larger than Total Reads.)

7) New Notes. The number of notes that have been opened for the first time (i.e., notes that this user has opened during this time period that s/he had not opened before, regardless of when the note was created.) Notes that are contributed to for the first time will also have been opened for the first time. (This number cannot be larger than Diff Notes.)

The number of times the user has reread notes during the time period is 5) - 7).

(There is currently no measure for the number of different notes that have been reread.)

Activity (Note Creation--Details)

This report gives more details of the notes that each user contributed to during the selected time period. Again, unlike the first several reports, the notes counted here were not necessarily created during the selected time period, but do appear in one or more of the selected views (except for KF2 databases when "All Views" is selected). The user must be an author on the note (except for KF2 databases when "Report by Contribution" is selected.)

1) # Notes Worked On. The total number of notes the user contributed to.

2) # Notes Created. The number of notes that the user contributed to for the first time. For group notes--i.e., notes with several authors--the note could have previously existed. The user who contributes for the first time to a previously existing note group is still considered to be one of the notes creators.

3) # Notes Edited. The number of notes that the user contributed to, not for the first time.

(Each contribution to a note is thus counted as either a creation or an edit, depending on whether it's a first contribution to the note or a later one; but the number of notes created plus the number of notes edited is not equal to the number of notes worked on, because the same note can be both created and edited during the selected time period.)

4) Number of Edits. The number of times the user contributed to notes that s/he had already contributed to before.

5) # Regular Notes Created. The number of non-build-on notes created (i.e., solitary notes and root notes of build-on trees.)

6) # Build-ons Created. The number of build-ons created. (5) + (6) = (2).

7) # Individual Notes Created. Individual notes are notes where the user is the sole author.

8) # Group Notes Created. Group notes are notes with more than one author. A group note is counted as having been created by the user if the user contributed to it for the first time during the selected time period. (7) + (8) = (2).

(A group note need not have more than one contributor (even for KF2 databases when "Report by Contributor" is selected). The designation of group note goes by the the author list in Knowledge Forum, where an author is someone who is allowed to contribute to the note--not someone who actually has contributed to it.)

(9) # Group Notes Initiated. Everyone who contributes to a group note helps to create the note. The first person to contribute to it "initiates" it. This is the number of group notes the user initiated. (A subset of the notes counted in (8)).

Activity Log for Single User

This report shows every occasion on which the selected user opened or saved a note, during the course of the database. (Opening a note is considered to be a read, although it may not be.) A separate line is printed for each read and save event.

The notes that are reported are the same as for the previous two activity reports.

(Whenever a note is created in KF, a save event is recorded. You will see in the log that there is also a read event recorded for each note creation: If the note was created with the Mac or the Windows client, the read event refers to the opening of an empty note to write on, and precedes the save event which creates the note; if the note was created with the Web client, the read event refers to the presentation of the completed note to the user, and follows the save event which creates the note.)

1) Date and Time. For the first read or save event of the day, the date and time of the event are given (in local time for the database). For subsequent events, the time elapsed since the first event of the day is given.

2) Read/Save. Indicates whether the event is a read or a save event. All saves are printed in bold type, for easy identification.

3) #. How many times the user has read or saved this note. (E.g., a 1 indicates that this is the first time the reader has read or saved the note; a 3, that it is the third time.)

4) New/Edit. This column is used only for saves. It indicates whether the save is the creation of a new note, or an edit of an already existing note. (First time saves can be edits, if the note has multiple authors and was created by someone else.)

5) ID. The ID number of the note, as assigned by KF. This number is useful for tracking the same note over time, and is used to specify links between notes, in column 6. An asterisk in column 5 indicates that the user is a contributor to the note, i.e., it identifies events that refer to a user's own notes.

6) Title and (Authors) /Links. This column gives the title of the note followed by its authors, in brackets. In addition, it shows the view, problem, keywords, and links (build-ons, references, collections, rise-aboves, and add tos) for the note, if these options were selected. However, the information in this column is for the note as it exists in the current database, not for the note as it was at the time of the event. It must therefore be used with caution in determining how a user may have used links to move through the database. (Information about the note as it was at the time of the event is not saved by KF.)

Activity Log for Multiple Users

This report gives the same information as the Activity Log for Single User, but for all users in the group. It tends to produce much too much output, but can be useful if a brief period of time is chosen.

 

The next five reports show which users have been working together in the database. In each report, the users in the selected group are listed down the left side of the page, and the users with whom they (may) have been working are listed across the top. Each report includes several matrices, one for each group in the database: The first matrix shows who the selected users have been working with in their own group, and subsequent matrices show who they have been working with in other groups. Zero's are left blank, to highlight the non-zero numbers.

(For KF2 databases where "Report by Contributor" is selected, all all of these reports go by contribution rather than authorship. In the text below, read "contributed to" for "authored".)

Who's Read Whose Notes

This shows how many (different) notes the user at the left has read, that were authored by the user at the top. The maximum possible in each case is all the notes that the user at the top has authored, which is given at the top in brackets. If a user has read a note with multiple authors, it will be counted under each author. If all notes had a single author, and if the authorship of a note could not be changed, a user would always have read all of their own notes, because KF records a read event whenever a note is created or saved. However, since notes can have multiple authors, a user could be an author on a note they have never opened; and since the authorship of a note can be changed, the creator of a note could be removed as an author, and some other user added (as when a teacher, perhaps, puts a note in the database on behalf of a user), and the user could then be the sole author of a note they have never opened. (This does not happen with KF2 databases if "Report by Contributor" is selected.)

Who's Coauthored Notes with Whom

This shows who the coauthors are on notes with multiple authors. The first matrix, for the selected group, is a symmetric matrix, since if user A is an author of a note which B is an author on, then the converse is true as well. A note with two authors in the selected group will thus appear twice in the matrix. A note with three authors will appear twice for each pair of authors, or 6 times. So there may be considerable repetition.

Who's Built on Whom

This shows how many times the user at the left has built on to a note that was authored by the user at the top. If a user builds on to the same note twice, both build-ons are counted. If a user builds on to a note with multiple authors, it is counted under each author; and if a note with multiple authors builds on to another note, each author is counted as having built on.

Who's Referenced Whom

This shows how many times the user at the left has used a note as a reference that was authored by the user at the top. If a user uses the same note as a reference more than once, all uses are counted. If a note used as a reference has multiple authors, the user is counted as having used a note by each of its authors; and if a note using a reference has multiple authors, each author is counted as having used it.

Who's Linked to Whom

The above reports in this section each deal with a single type of collaboration. This report combines collaborations of several types. A note is considered to be linked to another note if it builds on to that note, if it references it, if it is a rise-above-it note that contains that note, or (KF2 only) if it contains a collection with the note in it or has been put into an add to which that note contains. The matrix counts each link from any note that the user at the left is an author on to any note that the user at the top is an author on. It is not symmetric: the user at the left has to do something to link to a note authored by the user at the top--build on to it, reference it, or rise above it, or (KF2) collect it or add to it. The user at the top is the recipient of the action.

Who Has Read Each Note

All of the notes created during the selected time period and now appearing in the selected views are listed across the top of the matrix. The body of the matrix shows the number of times each user in the selected group read the note during the selected time period. If the user was an author on the note, the note is printed in red with asterisks.

Note History

Lists all of the reads and saves (by all users of the database) for a particular note.

Code Book

The report shows the code names that are used for each user when coded output is requested, either because the user signing on is classified as a writer (or student in KF2), or because the user has requested coded names on the reports page. If the user signing on is classified as a writer (or student in KF2), the name of the report changes to Code Name, and the report shows only the user's own code number.